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Sausage and Charcuterie Glossary Terms
Sausage and Charcuterie Terms and Ingredients



Alessandri
See Salami.

Alpino
See Salami.

Arles
See Salami.

Ascorbate
A chemical or salt that is derived from Vitamin C

Bangers
British or Scottish style sausage product prepared with meat and varying
amounts of rusk or other cereals.

Beef, Dried -- (prepared meat)
Also known as "chipped"; long cured product made from
beef round; cured, smoked, dehydrated and thinly sliced.
Available in cans, jars and vacuum packages.

Beef, Sliced -- (cooked meat specialty)
Made from boneless beef; chopped, cooked, smoked and
sliced; moist, not dehydrated; more perishable than dried
beef. Available in vacuum packages.

Beef Loaf, Jellied -- (cooked meat specialty)
Cooked beef, shredded and molded with gelatin, and
cooked in loaf or roll. Also available are Jellied Tongue,
Jellied Corned Beef and Jellied Veal Loaf.

Beerwurst
See Salami.

Berliner-Style Sausage -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Made of cured, coarsely ground pork and some mildly
cured, finely chopped beef; contains no seasoning other
than sugar and salt; available in rolls or packaged slices.

Blood Sausage -- (cooked sausage)
Diced, cooked fat pork, finely ground cooked meat, and
gelatin-producing materials mixed with beef blood and
spices.

Blood and Tongue Sausage -- (cooked sausage)
Cooked lamb and pork tongues are arranged lengthwise in
the center of a roll of blood sausage.

Blutwurst
See Blood Sausage.

Bockwurst (fresh sausage or cooked sausage)
Made of veal and pork (generally higher proportion of
veal), with milk, chives, eggs and chopped parsley;
seasoning is similar to frankfurters, but may have additional
condiments; available fresh or parboiled; highly perishable;
requires thorough cooking.

Bologna -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Originated in Bologna, Italy; made of cured beef and pork,
finely ground, with seasonings similar to frankfurters;
available in rings, rolls or slices of varying diameters; fully
cooked and ready to serve.
BEEF BOLOGNA is made exclusively of beef and
has a definite garlic flavor.
CHUB BOLOGNA is a smooth mixture of beef and
pork with bacon added.
HAM-STYLE BOLOGNA contains large cubes of
lean cured pork.

Boterhamworst -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Dutch-style sausage made of veal and pork, finely chopped
and blended with coarsely chopped pork fat and
seasonings.

Botulism
A deadly form of food poisoning derived from a toxin which thrives under conditions with no air. It has not odor and therefore is hard to detect.

Bratwurst -- (fresh sausage, cooked or smoked sausage)
Pork or a pork and veal mixture; highly seasoned; made in
links and available both fresh and fully cooked.

Braunschweiger -- (cooked sausage)
Liver sausage which has been smoked after cooking, or
includes smoked meat as ingredients.

Brine
A curing process which uses combines salt, cure, spices and liquid which is then injected or soaked.

Capacolla -- (prepared meat)
Italian origin; boneless pork shoulder butt seasoned with
ground red hot or sweet peppers, paprika, salt and sugar;
mildly cured and air dried.

Cervelat -- (semi-dry sausage)
General classification for mildly seasoned smoked, semi-dry
sausages. Popularly termed "Summer Sausage".
FARMER CERVELAT contains equal parts of
coarsely chopped pork and beef; cured, dried and
delicately seasoned, without garlic.
GOETTINGER CERVELAT is a high quality dry,
hard sausage; pork and beef; delightfully spiced.
GOTEBORG CERVELAT is made of coarsely
chopped pork and beef; heavily smoked, seasoning
is salty and somewhat sweet from the spice,
cardamon; of Swedish origin.
GOTHAER is a cervelat of German origin; made
only of very lean pork, finely chopped and cured.
HOLSTEINER CERVELAT is similar to farmer
cervelat, but packed in a ring-shaped style.
LANDJAEGER CERVELAT is a semi-dry sausage
of Swiss origin; beef and pork; heavily smoked with
a black, wrinkled appearance; in links the size of
large franks, but pressed flat.
THURINGER CERVELAT is a popular semi-dry
sausage made of beef and ham or pork fat;
distinctive tangy flavor; mildly spiced.

Chorizo -- (dry sausage)
Dry pork sausage of Spanish origin; meat coarsely cut;
smoked; highly spiced and has a size similar to large
frankfurters, one-inch links also made for sausage balls.

Chub Bologna
See Bologna.

Corned Beef, Jellied -- (cooked meat specialty)
Made from precooked, lean corned beef which is shredded
and mixed with pure gelatin, formed into a loaf and cooked.

Corn Syrup Solids
Corn syrup solids are used in sausge making to help bind and assist in fermentation.

Cotto Salami
See Salami.

Cure
Cure is a term which is commonly used interchangibly for different ingredients- sodium nitrate, potassium nitrite, potassium nitrate, sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate.

Deviled Ham -- (cooked canned meat specialty)
Whole hams are finely ground and seasoned. Popular as a
spread or a base for dips.

Dutch Loaf
See Old Fashioned Loaf.

Dextrose
A form of glucose used in sausage making to help brown evenly. In dry cured sausages, it helps the fermentation process. Dextrose is only about 75% as sweet as regular granulated sugar.

Farmer Cervelat
See Cervelat.

Fermentation
A process used in dry cured sausages to give the finished product a tangy flavor.

Fermento
A dairy based powder used for controlled fermentation.

Frankfurters -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Originated in Frankfurt, Germany; combination of beef and
pork or all beef which is cured, smoked and cooked;
seasonings may include coriander, garlic, ground mustard,
nutmeg, salt, sugar and white pepper; fully cooked but
usually served hot; terms "frankfurter," "wiener" and "hot
dog" often used interchangeably; sizes range from big dinner
frankfurters to tiny cocktail size; may be skinless or with
natural casings.

Frizzes -- (dry sausage)
Cured lean pork, chopped coarsely and a small quantity of
cured lean beef; highly spiced. Some varieties made with
hot spices, some with sweet spices.

Garlic Sausage
See Knackwurst.

Genoa Salami
See Salami, Italian.

Goetta -- (cooked meat specialty)
Fully cooked sausage of German origin similar to scrapple;
made with ground pork and/or beef, oats, herbs and spices;
available in rolls and slab form.

Goettinger Cervelat
See Cervelat.

Goteberg Cervelat
See Cervelat.

Gothaer
See Cervelat.

Green Weight
The weight of meat in it's raw state prior to processing.

Ham, Cooked -- (prepared meat)
Most prepared ham is steam or water cooked and
therefore is generally known as "boiled ham;" cured,
molded and fully cooked; sold whole or sliced and
packaged.

Ham, Chopped -- (cooked meat specialty)
Firm loaf made of ground, chipped or cubed cured pork;
ham-like in color and flavor.

Ham and Cheese Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
Loaf made of ground ham with cubes of firm cheese.

Head Cheese -- (cooked meat specialty)
Made from chopped, cured pork head meat in a gelatin
base; attractive and colorful.

Honey Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
Meat mixture similar to franks and bologna; contains about
equal parts of pork and beef. Flavorings include honey,
spices and sometimes pickles and/or pimentos.

Holsteiner Cervelat
See Cervelat.

Hygrometer
An instrument used to measure humidity in dry curing rooms.

Kielbasa
See Polish Sausage.

Knackwurst -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Similar in ingredients to franks and bologna with garlic
added for stronger flavor; made in wide natural casings or in
skinless styles; fully cooked, but usually served hot; also
known as Knoblouch or Garlic Sausage.

Knoblouch
See Knackwurst.

Kosher Salami
See Salami.

Landjaeger Cervelat
See Cervelat.

Lebanon Bologna -- (semi-dry sausage)
Originated in Lebanon, Pennsylvania; made of coarsely
chopped beef; heavily smoked; has a tart, tangy taste; dark
surface appearance.

Linguica -- (uncooked, smoked sausage)
Portuguese sausage made from coarsely ground pork butts,
seasoned with garlic, cumin seeds and cinnamon, cured in
vinegar pickling liquid before stuffing; smoked; also called
Longanzia.

Liver Cheese or Liver Loaf -- (cooked sausage, sometimes
called liver pudding)
Ingredients and processing similar to liver sausage but with
slight alteration to achieve more body for slicing. Molded in
sandwich-size brick shape.

Liver Sausage, Liverwurst -- (cooked sausage)
Finely ground, selected pork and livers; seasoned with
onions and spices; may also be smoked after cooking or
may include smoked meat such as bacon. (See
Braunschweiger)

Lola or Lolita -- (dry sausage)
Italian origin; made of mildly seasoned pork; contains garlic.

Luncheon Meat -- (cooked meat specialty)
Chopped Pork, ham and/or beef, tastily seasoned and
ready to serve. Available in loaves, canned or sliced in
vacuum packages, sliced.

Lyons Sausage -- (dry sausage)
An all-pork sausage with finely diced fat; of French origin;
seasoned with spices and garlic; cured and air dried.

Macaroni and Cheese Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
Made of finely ground pork and beef with generous
quantities of Cheddar cheese and macaroni distributed
throughout.

Meat Pump
A large hypodermic needle used to distribute cure evenly.

Mettwurst -- (uncooked, smoked sausage)
Cured beef and pork, ground and lightly spiced with
allspice, ginger, mustard and coriander, smooth; spreadable
consistency; cook before serving.

Milano Salami
See Salami, Italian.

Minced Luncheon Specialty -- (sandwich spread; cooked meat
specialty)
Made of lean beef and pork trimmings; cured; finely
ground, spiced.

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)
A controversial flavor enhancer derived from beets or molasses.

Mortadella -- (semi-dry sausage)
Italian-style sausage composed of very finely chopped,
cured pork and beef with added cubes of white fat;
delicately spiced with garlic and anise; smoked at high
temperature; air dried.

Mortadella, German Style -- (cooked meat specialty)
High grade, finely chopped bologna with cubes of fat pork
and pistachio nuts added; smoked at high temperature.

New England-Style Sausage -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
A Berliner style sausage made of coarsely chopped cured
lean pork.

Nitric Oxide
A by-product of sodium nitrite. Nitric oxide is actually what cures the meat.

Old Fashioned Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
Made of carefully selected lean pork with enough beef to
add flavor and firmness of texture to the loaf.

Olive Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
Blend of lean pork and beef chopped to a fine texture,
seasoned and mixed with whole, stuffed olives.

Pastrami -- (prepared meat)
Flat pieces of lean beef, dry cured, rubbed with paste of
spices and smoked.

Peppered Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
Pressed beef and pork loaf; distinctive seasoning of
cracked peppercorns.

Phosphate
An ingredient designed to help reduce the amount of moisture that is lost during the cooking process.

Pickle and Pimento Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
Made from finely chopped lean pork and beef with sweet
pickles and pimentos added.

Polish Sausage -- (uncooked, smoked sausage)
Coarsely ground lean pork with beef added; highly
seasoned with garlic; frequently referred to as Kielbasa
which was originally a Polish word for all sausage.

Pork Sausage, Fresh -- (fresh sausage)
Made only from selected fresh pork; seasoned with black
pepper, nutmeg, and rubbed sage, or other spices; sold in
links, packaged patties or bulk; thorough cooking is
required.

Pork Sausage, Italian Style -- (fresh sausage)
Fresh pork sausage, highly seasoned; cook thoroughly.

Pork Sausage, Smoked Country Style -- (uncooked, smoked
sausage)
Fresh pork sausage, mildly cured and smoked; cook
thoroughly.

Prague Powder
A trade name for curing salt, either sodium nitrite or sodium nitrate. Commonly referred to as prague powder #1 or #2.

Proscuitto -- (prepared meat)
Dry-cured ham; flattened; surface rubbed with spices.

Salami -- (dry sausage)
General classification for highly seasoned dry sausage with
characteristic fermented flavor. Usually made of beef and
pork; seasoned with garlic, salt, pepper and sugar. Most
are air dried and not smoked or cooked. The cooked
salamis are not dry sausage.
ALESSANDRI AND ALPINO SALAMI are
Italian-type salamis of American origin. (see below,
Italian Salami).
ARLES is a salami of French origin; similar to
Milano, but made of coarsely chopped meat. (See
below, Milano Salami).
BEERWURST, BEER SALAMI is a cooked
sausage of German origin; beef and pork, chopped
and blended; seasoning includes garlic; cooked at
high temperatures; smoked. Packaged in slices or in
bulk rolls for slicing. (See below, Cooked Salami).
CALABRESE SALAMI is a dry sausage of Italian
origin; usually made from all pork; seasoned with hot
peppers.
COOKED SALAMI is made from fresh meats,
which are cured, stuffed in casings, then cooked in
the smokehouse at high temperatures. May be air
dried for a short time; softer texture than dry and
semi-dry sausages. Cooked salamis are not dry
sausage. They belong to the cooked sausage group
and must be refrigerated.
COTTO SALAMI is a cooked salami; contains
whole peppercorns; may be smoked as well as
cooked. (See cooked Salami).
EASTER NOLA is a dry sausage of Italian origin;
coarsely chopped pork; mildly seasoned; spices
include black peppers and garlic.
GENOA SALAMI is a dry sausage of Italian origin;
usually made from all pork but may contain a small
portion of beef; moistened with wine or grape juice;
seasoned with garlic; a cord is wrapped lengthwise
and around the sausage at regular intervals.
GERMAN SALAMI is less highly flavored and
more heavily smoked than Italian; contains garlic.
HUNGARIAN SALAMI is less highly flavored and
more heavily smoked that Italian salami; contains
garlic.
ITALIAN SALAMI includes many varieties named
for towns and localities, e.g., Genoa, Milano, Sicilian;
principally cured lean pork, coarsely chopped and
some finely chopped lean beef; frequently moistened
with red wine or grape juice; usually highly seasoned
with garlic and various spices; air dried; chewy
texture.
KOSHER SALAMI is an all beef cooked salami.
The meat and the processing are under Rabbinical
supervision; mustard, coriander and nutmeg added to
regular seasonings. (See Italian Salami).
SICILIAN SALAMI -- See above, Salami, Italian.

Salometer
An instrument used to measure the amount of saturation in salt brines.

Salsiccia -- (fresh sausage)
Made of finely cut pork; highly spiced; unlinked; Italian
origin.

Saltpeter
Saltpeter is a deadly poison (potassium nitrate) and was all but banned by the USDA in 1975. It is no longer allowed for curing cooked meat or sausages, however, it is still allowed very sparingly in making dry-cured sausages such as hard salami, but in greatly reduced amounts.

Scrapple -- (cooked meat specialty)
Ground cooked pork combined with cornmeal; other flours
may be used in small amounts; available in loaf, brick or
rolls, canned.

Souse of Sulz -- (cooked meat specialty)
Similar to head cheese except for sweet-sour flavor added
by vinegar pickling liquid; dill pickles, sweet red peppers
and bay leaves sometimes added.

Smearing
An undesirable result of improper processing of sausage. The result is the outside of the finished product will appear very fatty, when in fact, it is not. This is caused by improper refregeration prior to processing.

Smokehouse Shrik

Smokies -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Coarsely ground beef and pork; seasoned with black
pepper; stuffed and linked like frankfurters.

Spam- (cooked meat specialty)
Brand name for a canned spiced pork product.

Thuringer Cervelat
See Cervelat.

Thuringer-Style Sausage -- (fresh sausage or cooked sausage)
Made principally of ground pork; may also include veal and
beef; seasoning similar to pork sausage, except no sage is
used; may be smoked or unsmoked.

Tongue, Cooked -- (prepared meat)
Most cooked pork, lamb and veal tongue is cured and
either canned or packaged in plastic; sometimes smoked.
Beef tongue is available whole, jellied, or in slices.

Veal Loaf -- (cooked meat specialty)
The meat in the loaf is primarily veal with some pork.

Vienna Sausage -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Ingredients similar to frankfurters. Term most often applied
to small, open end sausages packed in cans of water. These
are made into 80-foot lengths and cut into two-inch
portions for canning. The name, vienna-style sausage, may
also be used interchangeably with wiener or frankfurter.

Weisswurst -- (fresh sausage)
Of German origin, the name means "white sausage;" made
of pork and veal; mildly spices; links are about four inches
long and plump; very perishable.

Wiener -- (cooked, smoked sausage)
Both wieners and Vienna-style sausages take their names
from the city of Vienna, Austria. Wiener-style, as
originated, is sausage braided in groups of links.
Vienna-style frankfurters are twisted into a chain of links.
Terms are frequently used interchangeably with "frankfurter"
and formula may be the same. (See frankfurter)

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